An Overview of Perceptual Computing

Technology is making a rapid growth today making us to experience some of the imagination. Perception means to realize something, in general. Similarly perceptual computing means transforming the way of interacting with PCs in more natural way. Electronic device will be able to recognize our actions / movements like gestures, face recognition, finger articulation, speech recognition etc.,

Below is the Picture of Creative 3D Sensor camera used for Pereptual Computing , which intel provides to app developers.


You can interact with the device by means of gestures like, you will be able to virtually drive a car which appears in the screen, and you can kick a ball which appears and so on. As per my knowledge, Intel is the major company which has invested more in Perceptual Computing. They also have their own SDK which allows developers to build applications based on Perceptual Computing but the constraint is that they are compatible only with Intel processors. To bring up the interest of Perceptual computing among developers, Intel has also launched a contest “Perceptual Computing Challenge” for developers to build innovative applications.Below is the depiction of human recognition by Creative 3D sensor camera.A Person drives the car in his PC Virtually.

Perceptual Computing

Some of the interesting usage of perceptual computing is in building 3D Games, switching the background appearances when you make video chat like, you can sit at home and make your environment to look like a beach to the other who is watching you. It’s capable of detecting movements of all the 10 Fingers. We can virtually pick an object and move it , turn the page of the book you are reading , forward the music , recognize the age , your mood (either sad or happy).Machines (PCs) will understand what you are looking for.I am working on perceptual computing app , so will write it up detailed once after the results are successful. Perceptual Computing will definitely create a revolution in technological world. Let’s wait for it!

Categories: Upcoming Trends

What is Mobile Operating System ?

Mobile devices has become a part of everyone’s life and there are wide number of options available when we want to pick one for us. So it’s essential to know about what a Mobile OS is , it’s features and how it evolved.

To begin with, an Operating system (OS) is computer software that supports basic functions of a computer and manages computer hardware by providing services for the Computer Programs. Mobile Operating System is the one which Operates on Mobile devices such as Smartphones, Tablets and Other PDAs.

Some of the the major Mobile Operating Systems are,

  1. Android
  2. Blackberry
  3. iOS
  4. Windows
  5. Symbian
  6. Tizen
  7. Firefox

Let’s have a look at Android OS in detail and a summary about other major competitors.


Before we get to know what an Android Operating System is, let us know what OHA is.

Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a consortium formed by Google in 2007 to develop Open standards for the mobile devices. The consortium has 84 firms approximately (as of 9th Aug 2013) such as Google,Sony,Dell,Samsung, Lg,HTC etc.,The license is based on Open Source and OHA members should only manufacture mobiles which are compatible with Android OS. Some of the major competitors include Apple, Microsoft, Blackberry, HTC etc., HTC is listed in OHA list and the competitors list as well because HTC manufactures mobiles for Android Platform and other platform as well like, Windows mobile.


Android means Human Robot or a robot with Human Appearance. It’s a Linux based (Open Source) Operating System and the earlier intention was to develop OS for Digital Cameras. It was found by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White in October 2003 at California. Android was acquired by Google on 17th August 2005. Key employees of Android including Rubin, Miner and White stayed at the company after acquisition. Till March 2013, Android was led by Andy Rubin and then he was replaced by Sundar Pichai. Andy Rubin moved to a different project and Sundar who also continues his role in Google Chrome division. Sundar Pichai was born in India.

There are various versions of Android. They are,

  • Cupcake 1.5
  • Donut 1.6
  • Eclair 2.0 – 2.1
  • Honeycomb 3.0
  • Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0.3 – 4.0.4
  • Jelly Bean 4.1 – 4.3

AndroidGingerbread is considered to be the most stable one than the previous versions and only by that time, there has been a steady rise in the Android Users. The recent version Jelly Bean 4.3 is released on 24th July 2013.

Android applications can be developed using Android SDK or by using android plugins for Eclipse IDE. Android applications are available to users from Google Play store.

The limitation of Android is that, since its Open source, there are possibilities for hackers to hack it since they can learn the core of OS and the battery consumption of Andriod OS is slightly higher.


Blackberry is a closed source mobile operating system, designed and marketed by Research In Motion (RIM) Ltd. During a public event recently during Blackberry 10 launch, the company has changed its name from RIM to Blackberry. It was found by Mike Lazaridis in 1984. RIM launched its product primarily as a Pager in 1999.


Blackberry is widely referred to as Crackberry in United States. Most of the models have QWERTY keyboard and holds 3% of the mobile sales worldwide.The Operating system is programmed in C, C++, HTML 5 etc., BlackBerry can be integrated into Organizations mail system through BlackBerry Enterprise Server. So it is mostly used by business people.

The recent versions of Blackberry are Blackberry Z10 and Blackberry Q10.The applications for blackberry is available in “Blackberry World”. Compared to Android the number of free applications available is less.


iOS refers to iPhone Operating System which is developed and distributed by Apple inc. The OS is programmed in C , C++ , Objective C,Java and was released initially in 2007. It’s a closed source OS and accounts 21% of Smartphone sales around the world. The recent version of iOS is iOS 6.x.Apple iOS


Windows, by its name we can find out that it’s OS from Microsoft. It was earlier called as Windows Phone and later as Windows Mobile. It’s a closed source Operating System, programmed in C, C++ and the initial release was in November 2010. The recent release of Windows is Windows Phone 8. There has been a boost in Windows phone sales once after its tie up with Nokia, making windows a primary OS replacing Symbian OS.

Windows Mobile


Symbian was created by Psion in 1980s and the company was named as Symbian Ltd., in 1998. Then it became one of the major joint venture between Psion and various mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola. There has been a tremendous boost in mobile customer base when Symbian OS was introduced and by the same time there has been outstanding growth in telecom industry too.Symbian Logo

It’s a closed source Operating System and is programmed in C++ .Symbian was acquired by Nokia in June 2008.Once after Nokia’s tie up with Microsoft , Symbian was replaced by Windows Mobile.


Tizen OS was developed by Samsung / Intel and is released on January 2012. It’s based on Linux Kernal and is a mixed source model (Open source and Proprietary). It has been said in a press release that Android applications can run on Tizen but it’s yet to reach out the consumers widely.

Tizen Logo


Firefox is a Linux based Open Source Operating System developed by Mozilla. It’s programmed in HTML5, CSS,Javascript and C++ . The initial release was in April 2013.Similar to Tizen , it’s yet to reach out the Consumers hand widely.

Firefox OSOverall, Android seems to be ruling the mobile market in recent times. We have to wait and watch if we can get a better one.

32 Bit Vs 64 Bit Processors

April 29, 2012 2 comments

Processor is the heart of any Computer. The performance of a PC depends mainly on its processor. There are two different types of processors which are being used in PC’s now-a-days. Depending on the architecture a processor can be categorized either as 32 bit or 64 bit processor .Both have their own pros & cons.

The two major competitors in today’s market are Intel & AMD .  64 bit version of processors can handle large amount of data, more efficiently compared to that of 32 bit processors. A maximum of 4GB RAM can be used when 32 bit Processors are used whereas a maximum of 16 exabytes (17.2 billion GB)can be used in case of 64 bit processors. It also varies with respect to the Operating System and other factors.

Below is the picture that depicts a 32 bit Processor usage with 8 GB RAM :

Only 2.75 GB is usable among the 7.00 GB RAM which is available , since it is a 32 bit Processor / OS.

Below is the picture that depicts a 62 bit Processor usage with 8 GB RAM :

Complete 12 GB is usable among the available RAM , since it is a 64 bit Processor / OS.

There are different editions of Operating system for 32 bit and 64 bit which can be installed with respect to the processors. Most of the 32 bit applications are compatible with 64 bit Operating Systems (Other than the device drivers) but not the vice versa.

  •  32 bit OS will run on  32-bit or 64 bit processor
  • 32 bit application will run on  32 bit or 64 bit OS
  • 64 bit application will only run on a 64 bit OS and a 64 bit OS will only run on a 64 bit processor

A 64 bit Operating System is more responsive while running multiple applications, comparatively. Most of the applications developed for 64 bit are not stable compared to that to 32 bit applications. One dis advantage of using 64 bit processor is that more space will be occupied by same data there by the space gets wasted whereas only limited space will be occupied by same data in 32 bit processor.

64 Bit processors are more advantageous than 32 bit processors but the software and drivers developed for 64 Bit Processors / OS are not much stable.

Categories: Technology

Troubleshooting Your PC !

Troubleshooting , the name by itself suggests that it is a problem solving process . It’s a term used frequently to repair failed hardware or software.Almost each and every one is having PC at home now-a-days. So it will be nice if we know to solve some of the common problems which we face with our PC day to day.

Before that let me hint you a few things which exist already in the PC . One of the best examples is POST which refers to Power On Self Test .The PC Checks itself for necessary hardware functioning whenever it’s switched on.

Here are some of the problems which I have faced and I have also explained how I have solved it !

Problem 1:

When ever I switch on my System , an error is displayed that the CMOS Check Sum Bad. Press Del / F1 to enter setup ?

Solution :

It may occur because of the problem that your CMOS battery may get drained out.It needs to be changed 2 years once (approx) to keep the BIOS settings saved even though we Switch off the PC.

Problem 2:

I have installed Operating System in my PC but my system shows the error “No Boot Device Found” , when I switch on my PC ?


It may cause due to various reasons . Some of the common mistakes may be , we forget to change the Boot Priority and HDD must be available first in boot order (Preferably). Such error may occur also because of choosing wrong Primary Partition.

Problem 3:

I have connected two drives (either HDD or DVD Drive) but my PC shows only one drive or it doesn’t show any of the drives in “My Computer” ?


It occurs because of the Wrong Jumper settings (i.e.,) one drive should act as Master and other should act as Slave . You can find the jumper slot near the power slot.

Problem 4:

I have two drives of maximum size. How can I make a third logical drive by extracting some free space in the existing drives ?


You can use some third party software such Partition Magic or else you can use the shrink feature in Windows Vista or later versions.

Problem 5:

I have Windows 7 in my PC and how can I degrade to Windows XP or lower versions ?


This is one of the major problems which every one will face. Normally , degrade of Windows versions is not supported by default. You can make it done with a help of Live Boot Linux Disc.Boot into Linux and use partition manager to delete the Windows (OS) partition.


Problem 6:

I am unable to install Windows OS even after partitioning , in Windows Setup ?


It may probably due to a virus attack.In such case you can install OS , only when you delete all the existing drives in your PC.

Problem 7:

I have some very important data in my Hard Disk but unknowingly I formatted it. Is it possible to recover my data , after formatting ?


Yes it is possible to recover your data safe by using some third party software like “Recover My Files” , provided you doesn’t place some new data on same drive after formatting it.

Problem 8:

My PC gets switched on but there is no display in the Screen ?


Try fixing up your RAM correct in the  slot in MB.


[*Above content is only of my experiences and may not reflect the exact ones as in other sources]

Categories: Hardware

What is a Proxy Server?

October 12, 2010 2 comments


Proxy is a term which we come across often, in a network. In general, a proxy is referred to as a person authorized to act for other. A proxy server is nothing but a mediator which acts between the requests sent from a client asking for the resources from the server. Whenever a request is made from the client in a network, the proxy server evaluates the request and allows it to access the resource if it’s a valid one. There are also caches in proxy server (i.e.,) the proxy server receives response from the remote server and returns it to the client.

There are different types of proxy servers. Some of them are as follows,

  • Web Proxy
  • Content filtering Proxy
  • Caching Proxy
  • Open Proxy
  • Tunneling Proxy
  • Reverse Proxy

There are a wide number of proxy servers available for use. Each has their own characteristics and features. Various Open Source proxy servers too available for use and we can customize it as needed.

Some of the proxy servers available are,

  • Squid Proxy
  • Privoxy
  • TinyProxy
  • Ziproxy
  • Apache HTTP Server

Let me give an overview of Squid Proxy server (Open Source)which is used commonly in many organizations.

It’s primarily designed to run on Unix Systems. Consider that your Squid Proxy runs on your server with ip address and the default port number for Squid is 3128. The port number is customizable one, consider the default one here. Let the client connected bear the ip address

The client interacts with the proxy server as follows,

You can configure your ip address either static or can be set dynamic at the client but there are a few more configurations to be done in your web browsers to access to the external resource (internet).I ‘ll just explain using ie here.Choose Options from Tools menu and navigate to connections tab and then LAN Settings.Check use proxy server option and fill out the necessary ip address and port number . It must look something as follows.

What it means is that , all the requests made from client is passed to server with ip address and port 3128 , where the squid proxy is running already. Then the requests are processed and results are returned.

You can also find out the type of proxy used in the network whenever the error page , something like Access denied ! is displayed ! The proxy server name is specified in the last line of the error page.

Categories: Technology

What is a Blog?

Blog is a term which we come across frequently when we are surfing and is  nothing but a  shortened form of Web Log. A blog in general, can be defined as an online journal, where people post entries about their personal experiences and hobbies. The set of content posted in a blog is called as Posts. The posts are arranged like LIFO order (i.e.,) the recent posts are displayed first.

There are a number of providers online; to create a blog such as Google’s BlogSpot, word press and many other. Each has its own features. Some blogs are highly customizable while some are not. Almost all the blogs allow users to make comments about the posts and some widgets can be added by users as needed.

There are different types of blog depending on the design, type of content and some other features. There are also separate search in search engines to search the contents of blogs. It’s also notable that there are also some dangers with blog .Earlier , some bloggers were arrested because of some on their anti writings. Blogging is also one of the nice hobby and a way to express our thoughts and experiences.

Most of the blogging sites make the novice easy to design their own blogs. Some provide easy designing by drag and drop feature whereas some providers make it a little difficult for beginners. The old posts are grouped automatically as archives or categories for later reference. A lot more features can be added to the blog by the user.

The major difference between a blog and a website is that, blogs are free and registering our domains may be charged. More over contents of the blog can be searched easily since every time when we publish new post in blog, it gets indexed in search engines. If you don’t have a blog, start blogging now, if interested!

Happy Blogging!

Categories: General

Computer Virus

September 27, 2010 3 comments

VIRUS refers to Vital Information Resource Under Siege. A Computer virus is nothing but a malicious program that brings damage to the data and applications which exist in computer. As we know that there are different types of viruses, each have its own characteristics. It’s a common problem for everyone who uses Windows and its allied Operating Systems that their PC gets affected by virus frequently unless they use a highly secure Antivirus.

Though we use antivirus software to make our PC free from virus, no anti-virus can assure that its 100% virus proof. So measures may help to make antivirus software better by making regular updates of virus definitions and so on. There are some viruses which disable antivirus software and take the control to itself.

Viruses easily get spread in executable form and through USB drives by means of antorun.inf file. The Windows OS itself cannot withstand to Virus after some extent whereas Linux OS can withstand to virus at greater extent. Linux also cannot be said as Virus proof OS but it cannot be affected by Virus easily, since it’s highly secure. Linux also doesn’t support executable files and modifying some of the core files need administrator permissions. It’s also a notable thing that Viruses are helpful to some extent, such as some spy wares used in some companies to know whether the employee really works but there are lot of disasters because of viruses. Making a system 100% free from virus is highly impossible but some safeguard measures can help us to be secure to some extent!

Categories: Tech Issues
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